Binary number is a number system based on two distinct symbols – 0 and 1. The base-2 number system is commonly used in computer science to represent numerical values. It is also known as the base-2 numeral system or “digital number system.”

In binary numbers, every digit is an individual representation of two possible states – 0 and 1. A binary number is written using the same symbols and rules of the decimal (base-10) number system, but each digit’s value is determined by an exponential of two, rather than by an exponential of 10. Therefore, each column position of a binary number is multiplied by an exponential of two instead of an exponential of 10. Together, these two symbols – 0 and 1 – represent the two numbers in the base-2 system.

For example, the number 101 represents the number 5 in the decimal system, because there is one 2^2 position, zero 2^1 positions, and one 2^0 position, which makes 5 in the decimal system.

Due to the meaning of the two symbols in the binary system, it is known as the “binary numeral system”. It is used by almost all modern computer systems, in the form of machine language instructions and data. Binary numbers are also used for various purposes in mathematics and cryptography.

In conclusion, the Binary number system is a numerical system consisting of two distinct symbols – 0 and 1 – to represent numerical values. It is used by virtually all modern computer systems, and plays a critical role in mathematics and cryptography.

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