Decimal, often abbreviated as dec, is a base-10 numeral system which is used to represent integers. It is widely used in banking, mathematics, and computing. In mathematics, decimal numbering is used to represent numbers between 0 and 1, known as decimal fractions.

The decimal system is based on the use of the base-10 digit values (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). Each position in a decimal number can represent ten times the value of the digits to its immediate right. For example, the number 145 represents the product of one hundred and forty-five (100*1 + 4*10 + 5*1).

The decimal system has several advantages over the binary system, which is the system typically used by computers. It is much easier to convert a decimal number to a binary number than the other way around, as decimal numbers have far fewer digits than binary numbers. Decimal numbers can also be written more compactly than binary numbers. For example, a single decimal digit can represent values from 0 to 9, whereas four binary digits are needed to represent the same range.

Decimals are also preferable to binary numbers when working with numbers that change rapidly. Because decimal numbers are easier to read and write, they are better for use in time-critical scenarios.

Decimal is an integral part of many computer applications, particularly in data analysis and financial modeling. It is also used in programming languages, such as C and Java, for applications that require precise calculations, such as simulation, mathematical modeling, and game programming.

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