Choosing the right programming language to learn can be a complex task, considering the wide array of languages available. Here are the top 10 programming languages that should be on your radar in 2023, complete with useful resources and salary insights for each language.

1. Python

Python is a versatile, high-level programming language with straightforward syntax that is ideal for beginners. It is in high demand for web application development, scientific research, machine learning, and artificial intelligence due to its rich ecosystem of libraries and tools. Python learners can utilize resources like Learn Python the Hard Way and Codecademy’s Python Course.

Top Programming Languages to Learn in 2023

2. JavaScript

As the primary language for web development, JavaScript is responsible for the interactivity and dynamism of websites. With the advancement of libraries and frameworks like React, Angular, and Vue.js, this language is essential for modern web development. JavaScript resources include Eloquent JavaScript and JavaScript: Understanding the Weird Parts.

3. Java

Java, a platform-independent and scalable language, is widely used for Android application development and enterprise systems. Its versatility opens up a wide range of possibilities across various industries. Head First Java and Java: The Complete Reference are excellent resources for learning Java.

4. C#

Developed by Microsoft, C# is part of the .NET platform and is considered one of the most universal programming languages. It is used for building desktop, web, and mobile applications, as well as games on the Unity platform. Aspiring C# programmers can look into Pro C# 5.0 and the .NET 4.5 Framework and Microsoft’s C# Documentation.

5. Kotlin

Kotlin, a modern programming language developed by JetBrains, is quickly gaining popularity due to its compatibility with Java and ease of use. Google officially supports Kotlin for Android app development, making it a sought-after language among mobile developers. The Kotlin for Java Developers course on Coursera and Kotlin Documentation are useful resources for learning Kotlin.

6. Swift

Swift, a programming language developed by Apple, is used for creating native applications on platforms like iOS, macOS, watchOS, and tvOS. Swift is fast, secure, and a key tool for Apple developers, making it an excellent choice for those interested in mobile app development. Resources for Swift include Apple’s Swift Documentation and The Swift Programming Language book.

Top Programming Languages to Learn in 2023

7. Go

Designed at Google to solve scalability and efficiency problems, Go, or Golang, is simple to learn, fast, and reliable. It’s popular for building high-performance systems like cloud services and network applications. The Go Programming Language book and A Tour of Go are great resources for learning Go.

8. Rust

Rust is a programming language developed by Mozilla focusing on safety and performance. With its unique memory management mechanisms and approach to parallelism, Rust is gaining developers’ attention and becoming an appealing language to learn. Consider checking out The Rust Programming Language book and Rust by Example.

9. TypeScript

TypeScript, a superset of JavaScript developed by Microsoft, aims to enhance static typing and code scalability. It helps identify errors during code writing, thereby improving the quality and reliability of developed applications. It’s in demand among web developers due to its integration with popular frameworks. TypeScript resources include TypeScript Deep Dive and TypeScript Handbook.

10. Ruby

Ruby is another general-purpose programming language known for its expressive and readable syntax. The main advantage of Ruby is the Ruby on Rails framework, which significantly simplifies web application development, making Ruby relevant for web developers. Why’s (Poignant) Guide to Ruby and Learn Ruby the Hard Way are valuable resources for learning Ruby.

Salary Insights

Below is the average annual salary for programmers in each language, as of 2023:

Programming LanguageAverage Salary (USD)


With the rapid pace of technological advancements, programming languages continue to evolve, each with unique strengths and use cases. Understanding these top programming languages in 2023, complete with educational resources and potential earnings, will undoubtedly help you plan your learning journey or bolster your existing coding skills.

Sources for salary data: Indeed, Payscale

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